CERN - The Standard Model Of Particle Physics

Space, Matter and Time — what else can there be? Quantities of these fundamental qualities can be measured in Meters(m), Kilograms(kg) and Seconds(s), respectively — the Système Internationale (SI) standard of measurement (also known as MKS). The universe is believed to consist of matter (4% atoms — 3.6% of which is in intergalactic gas — and 22% dark matter) and energy (74% dark energy). Dark energy uniformly fills all of space with a density of 10−29 grams per cubic centimeter, and is the source of a repulsive force causing the universe to expand. Energy (E) is regarded to be interconvertible with matter (mass, m) by Einstein's famous equation E = mc2, where c is the speed of light. The so-called Standard Model of particle physics (formulated in the 1970s) describes the universe in terms of Matter (fermions) and Force (bosons). Force is not independent of the fundamental qualities. Force can be expressed in terms of the fundamental qualities as Mass times Acceleration [kg x m/s2] or (equivalently) as change of Momentum per unit Time [(kg x m/s)/s]. The Standard Model describes approximately 200 particles and their interactions using 17 fundamental particles, all of which are fermions or bosons: 6 quarks (fermions), 6 leptons (fermions), 4 force-carrying particles (bosons), and the hypothetical Higgs boson. Unlike the force-carrying particles, the matter particles have associated antimatter particles, such as the antielectron (also called positron) and antiquarks. [For the purpose of this paragraph, Antimatter (fermions) is being regarded as a kind of Matter (fermions).]

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