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Lec 36 - Bond Energies, the Boltzmann Factor and Entropy

"Lec 36 - Bond Energies, the Boltzmann Factor and Entropy" Freshman Organic Chemistry (CHEM 125) After discussing the classic determination of the heat of atomization of graphite by Chupka and Inghram, the values of bond dissociation energies, and the utility of average bond energies, the lecture focuses on understanding equilibrium and rate processes through statistical mechanics. The Boltzmann factor favors minimal energy in order to provide the largest number of different arrangements of "bits" of energy. The slippery concept of disorder is illustrated using Couette flow. Entropy favors "disordered arrangements" because there are more of them than there are of recognizable ordered arrangements. 00:00 - Chapter 1. Chupka and Inghram's Determination of Graphite's Heat of Atomization 14:19 - Chapter 2. Calculating Equilibrium Constants from Bond Dissociation Energies 27:55 - Chapter 3. The Boltzmann Factor: How is Temperature Related to Energy? 36:24 - Chapter 4. Entropy and the Tendency toward "Disordered Arrangements" Complete course materials are available at the Open Yale Courses website: http://open.yale.edu/courses This course was recorded in Fall 2008.

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Channels: Chemistry (General)

Tags: Heat of atomization average bond energy Gibbs Chupka Ingram Boltzmann factor entropy heat of formation bond dissociation energy

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Duration: 47m 51s

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Lecture list for this course

Lec 1 - How Do You Know?

Lec 2 - Force Laws, Lewis Structures and Resonance

Lec 3 - Double Minima, Earnshaw's Theorem and Plum-Puddings

Lec 4 - Coping with Smallness and Scanning Probe Microscopy

Lec 5 - X-Ray Diffraction

Lec 6 - Seeing Bonds by Electron Difference Density

Lec 7 - Quantum Mechanical Kinetic Energy

Lec 8 - One-Dimensional Wave Functions

Lec 9 - Chladni Figures and One-Electron Atoms

Lec 10 - Reality and the Orbital Approximation

Lec 11 - Orbital Correction and Plum-Pudding Molecules

Lec 12 - Overlap and Atom-Pair Bonds

Lec 13 - Overlap and Energy-Match

Lec 14 - Checking Hybridization Theory with XH_3

Lec 15 - Chemical Reactivity: SOMO, HOMO, and LUMO

Lec 16 - Recognizing Functional Groups

Lec 17 - Reaction Analogies and Carbonyl Reactivity

Lec 18 - Amide, Carboxylic Acid and Alkyl Lithium

Lec 19 - Oxygen and the Chemical Revolution (Beginning to 1789)

Lec 20 - Rise of the Atomic Theory (1790-1805)

Lec 21 - Berzelius to Liebig and Wöhler (1805-1832)

Lec 22 - Radical and Type Theories (1832-1850)

Lec 23 - Valence Theory and Constitutional Structure (1858)

Lec 24 - Determining Chemical Structure by Isomer Counting (1869)

Lec 25 - Models in 3D Space (1869-1877); Optical Isomers

Lec 26 - Van't Hoff's Tetrahedral Carbon and Chirality

Lec 27 - Communicating Molecular Structure in Diagrams and Words

Lec 28 - Stereochemical Nomenclature; Racemization and Resolution

Lec 29 - Preparing Single Enantiomers and the Mechanism of Optical Rotation

Lec 30 - Esomeprazole as an Example of Drug Testing and Usage

Lec 31 - Preparing Single Enantiomers and Conformational Energy

Lec 32 - Stereotopicity and Baeyer Strain Theory

Lec 33 - Conformational Energy and Molecular Mechanics

Lec 34 - Sharpless Oxidation Catalysts and the Conformation of Cycloalkanes

Lec 35 - Understanding Molecular Structure and Energy through Standard Bonds

Lec Last - Potential Energy Surfaces, Transition State Theory and Reaction Mechanism

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