In molecular biology, Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA). Separate terms are used for genetic alterations resulting from introduction of DNA by plasmid-encoded conjugation or by viruses (transduction). Transformation of animal cells is usually called transfection. The term transformation is also used more generally to describe mechanisms of DNA and RNA transfer in molecular biology (i.e. not only the genetic consequences). For example the production of transgenic plants such as transgenic maize requires the insertion of new genetic information into the maize genome using an appropriate mechanism for DNA transfer; the process is commonly referred to as transformation. RNA molecules may also be transferred into cells using similar methods, but this does not normally produce heritable change and so is not true transformation. Text reff: wikipedia

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